The SBA Blog

Navigating the Double Materiality Maze: A Comparative Look at European Sustainability Reporting Standards and GRI

27 March 2024.

In recent years, the push towards more sustainable business practices has gained significant momentum, heralding a new era of corporate responsibility and accountability. Central to this shift is the concept of materiality in sustainability reporting, which helps organizations identify and communicate the environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues most relevant to their business operations and stakeholders. The European Union's adoption of the new European Sustainability Reporting Standards (ESRS) and its emphasis on the "double materiality" requirement marks a significant milestone in this journey. This blog post delves into the nuances of the ESRS's double materiality concept, compares it with the Global Reporting Initiative's (GRI) materiality principle, and offers actionable recommendations for businesses looking to navigate these standards effectively.

The Essence of Double Materiality

At the heart of the ESRS is the double materiality concept, which expands the traditional scope of materiality to encompass both financial and non-financial impacts of a company's operations. This dual perspective requires organizations to report not only on how sustainability issues affect their financial performance (financial materiality) but also on how their operations impact society and the environment (impact materiality). The introduction of double materiality underlines the EU's commitment to holistic sustainability reporting, ensuring that companies provide a comprehensive view of their ESG performance and impact.

Comparison with GRI's Materiality Principle

The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), one of the world's most widely adopted sustainability reporting frameworks, has long championed the concept of materiality. GRI's approach allows organizations to determine which topics are material based on their significance to stakeholders and the impact on the organization's ability to create, preserve, or erode economic, environmental, and social value. While GRI's materiality principle shares similarities with the ESRS's double materiality, there are distinct differences.

GRI focuses on stakeholder inclusiveness and sustainability context, enabling organizations to prioritize issues that matter most to their stakeholders and reflect broader societal goals. Conversely, the ESRS's double materiality requirement mandates a more structured approach to assessing both the external impacts of a company's activities and the sustainability issues that influence financial performance. This dual lens ensures a more balanced and exhaustive reporting process, compelling companies to address their broader societal and environmental responsibilities alongside their economic goals.

Recommendations for Businesses

As businesses grapple with the evolving landscape of sustainability reporting, understanding and implementing the requirements of both GRI and ESRS becomes paramount. Here are some actionable steps organizations can take:

  1. Assess Materiality from Both Perspectives: Companies should conduct thorough materiality assessments that consider both the financial impacts of sustainability issues on the organization and the organization's impact on the environment and society. This dual assessment will align with the ESRS's double materiality requirement and ensure comprehensive reporting.
  2. Engage Stakeholders: Effective stakeholder engagement is crucial for identifying material issues. Businesses should actively involve a wide range of stakeholders, including investors, customers, employees, and local communities, to gather diverse perspectives on materiality.
  3. Strengthen Reporting Processes: Organizations must establish robust reporting frameworks that accommodate the comprehensive requirements of the ESRS and GRI. This includes investing in data collection and analysis capabilities to accurately report on both financial and impact materiality.
  4. Enhance Transparency and Accountability: Beyond compliance, companies should view sustainability reporting as an opportunity to demonstrate transparency, build trust with stakeholders, and enhance their corporate reputation. Clear, honest reporting on both the positive and negative aspects of their ESG performance is essential.
  5. Monitor Regulatory Developments: The regulatory landscape for sustainability reporting is rapidly evolving. Businesses should stay informed about changes to both the ESRS and GRI standards to ensure ongoing compliance and best practice reporting.


The European Sustainability Reporting Standards' emphasis on double materiality represents a significant shift towards more comprehensive and impactful sustainability reporting. By comparing this requirement with the GRI's materiality principle, businesses can better understand their reporting obligations and the broader implications for corporate sustainability. Ultimately, by embracing the principles of double materiality, engaging with stakeholders, and enhancing their reporting practices, organizations can not only comply with evolving standards but also drive meaningful change towards a more sustainable future.